Agro Productividad 2024-04-15T17:10:14+00:00 Dr. Jorge Cadena Iñiguez Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Agro Productividad</strong> es una publicación mensual del Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agrícolas. Fue fundada en 2008 con el objetivo de difundir resultados en artículos científicos originales, así como notas científicas, revisiones temáticas, relacionados con la agricultura (cultivos, silvicultura, ganadería, pesca y acuicultura, y agroindustria) y la producción de agroalimentos.</p> <p>También aborda temáticas sobre procesos económicos, sociales y ambientales que impactan la productividad agrícola y el desarrollo rural.</p> <p>Todas las contribuciones recibidas son sometidas a un proceso de arbitraje doble ciego y edición final. La revista se publica en español y en inglés. Se encuentra indexada a diferentes indicadores nacionales e internacionales resaltando <a title="CONACYT (Competencia Internaciona)" href=""><strong>CONACYT </strong>(Competencia Internacional)</a>,<a href=""><em> EBSCO</em></a>, <a href="">CENGAGE LEARNING</a>, INC., <a href=";user=BX46e5AAAAAJ">Google Académico</a> además de <a href="">Zoological Records</a> en <a href="">Master Journal List</a> de <a href="">Clarivate Analitycs</a> (antes ISI), <a href=";local_base=per01"><em>PERIODICA</em></a>-<a href="">Biblat</a>, <a href="">CABI</a> y <a href="">CAB Abstracts</a>, <a href="">Latindex (Directorio</a> y <a href="">Catálogo</a>), <a href="">REDIB</a>, <a href="">SIBDI</a>, <a href="">MIAR</a>, <a href=";and_facet_source_title=jour.1389419&amp;viz-st:aggr=mean">DIMENSIONS</a>, <a href="">CORE</a>,<a href=""> Scilit</a>, <a href=";cc=2394">AgEconSEARCH , </a><a href=";referer=brief_results">WordCat </a>, <a href=";refid=dctableen">BASE</a>, <a title="EBSCOhost (Fuente académica Plus)" href="">EBSCO<em>hos</em>t (Fuente académica Plus)</a> <a style="background-color: #ffffff; font-size: 0.875rem;" href="">AURA</a>, <a href=";colors=7&amp;lang=de&amp;jq_type1=QS&amp;jq_term1=Agro+productividad">Electronic Journals Library (EZB)</a>, <a href="">Refseek</a>,<a href=""> OpenAire</a>, <a href=";view=full">ZEITSCHRIFT DATENBANK</a> y recientemente <a href=";rn=1">Jisc</a> y <a href="">scite.</a></p> Effectiveness of feed restriction to improve feed efficiency in finishing pigs 2020-09-25T01:22:12+00:00 José Alfredo Martínez Aispuro José Luis Figueroa Velasco Manuel Martínez Aispuro María Teresa Sánchez-Torres José Luis Cordero Mora <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To review the effects of restricted feeding in finishing pigs on production efficiency and meat quality.<br /><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> A bibliographic review of feeding management in pigs fed ad libitum, restricted and their combination was carried out.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Feeding restriction decreases the growth rate, but if the restriction is moderate, better feeding efficiency can be obtained. The feed restriction followed by feed ad libitum gets compensatory growth, that equals or improves continuous free access feeding.<br /><strong>Study limitations/implications:</strong> The feed restriction implementation can be useful to improve feed efficiency and in periods that is necessary to slow down growth.<br /><strong>Findings/conclusions:</strong> Moderate feed restriction (-10%) of finishing pigs improves feed efficiency. Feed restriction of less than 20% for 30 days, followed by ad libitum feed promotes compensatory growth and improves feed efficiency.</p> 2021-07-22T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2021 Agro Productividad The contribution of herbal medicine in health problems of the indigenous community of Oaxaca, Mexico 2023-04-11T13:50:08+00:00 Jessica Gesabel Méndez Cabrera Óscar L. Figueroa-Rodríguez Mercedes A. Jiménez-Velázquez José L. Pimentel-Equihua Jesús A. Cuevas-Sánchez <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To characterize the ways and magnitude in which herbal medicine mitigates health problems and represents a source of savings; as well as to identify the most common ailments treated with herbal medicine and the most used medicinal plants in Santiago Ixtaltepec, Nochixtlán, Oaxaca.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> The study was conducted in 2022, with a quantitative approach and a descriptive-correlational scope. Data were obtained through a survey, applied through direct interviews. Once the data were obtained in the field, they were systematized and processed in Excel databases and descriptive statistical analysis was performed to determine frequencies, percentages, means and other measures of dispersion.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The use of herbal medicine is relevant as an alternative in health care for the community’s population. The most common ailments treated with herbal medicine are stomach aches, postpartum treatment, cough, fever, and bad breath, and the most commonly used medicinal plants are coyote grass, horehound (<em>Marrubium vulgare</em>), cancer grass, puli (<em>Pinaropappus roseus</em>), and juniper (<em>Juniperus deepeana</em>).</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications:</strong> As this is a case study, the findings are not generalizable but specific to the community of study.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions:</strong> Herbal medicine contributes to the mitigation of health problems and its use has an impact on the economy of families. There is a direct relationship between the most common symptoms and the most used plants in the community.</p> 2024-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Sensitivity to fungicides of Botrytis cinérea (Pers.) isolated from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) 2023-04-14T15:02:25+00:00 Candelario Ortega-Acosta José Terrones-Salgado Francisco J. Sánchez-Ruiz Santo A. Ortega-Acosta Francisco Palemón-Alberto Nicolás Alvares-Acevedo <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate the sensitivity of <em>B</em>. <em>cinerea</em> isolated from raspberry to nine fungicides alone and in combination with potassium silicate.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>The study evaluates the sensitivity of four isolates obtained from four raspberry plantations in October 2022, which were identified in a previous study as <em>B</em>.<em>cinerea</em> based on morphological, morphometric and molecular characteristics, to nine fungicides alone and combined with potassium silicate. <em>B</em>. <em>cinerea</em> was planted in PDA culture medium modified with fungicides plus potassium silicate, and mycelial growth and mycelial growth inhibition percentage (PICM) were evaluated. A completely randomized design with six repetitions and two controls was used, an ANOVA and Tukey’s mean comparison test were performed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong><em>B</em>. <em>cinerea</em> isolated from CITAP showed lower growth with fluazinam (PICM = 100 ), while with azoxystrobin it presented a PICM equal to 0. <em>B</em>. <em>cinerea</em> isolated from Paso del Cristo and Sierra Negra 2 had lower growth with fluazinam (PICM = 100), while with boscalid and azoxystrobin it showed a PICM equal to 0. In Sierra Negra 1, iprodione controlled <em>B</em>. <em>cinerea</em> better with a PICM equal to 100, while azoxystrobin showed a PICM equal to 0. All the isolates were sensitive when fungicides were combined with potassium silicate.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong>All the isolates were sensitive to the fungicides fluazinam, fenhexamid, thiophanate methyl, captan, pyrimethanil, fludioxonil and iprodione. The isolates from Sierra Negra 1 and CITAP were sensitive to boscalid, while those from Sierra Negra 2 and Paso del Cristo were insensitive; 100 % of the isolates were insensitive to azoxystrobin, which suggests that they could be resistant; finally, potassium silicate potentiates the effect of fungicides.</p> 2024-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Hydroponic corn (Zea mays L.) fodder production through the implementation of mineral fertilization: a comparative study 2023-04-29T22:15:12+00:00 César Chiquito Contreras Eliezer Cocoletzi Vásquez Jorge Ricaño Rodríguez <p><strong>R</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To produce hydroponic corn forage using a mineral fertilization planning with three different seed types and to determine the optimal concentration for production and livestock feeding.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> A completely randomized experimental design was used. The following study variables were included in the design: plant height, root length, stalk thickness, and fresh biomass. Five hundred grams of three different variety seeds were selected, washed, disinfected, soaked, covered, aerated, and placed in plastic trays. Starting from the fifth day, the seeds were watered with formulated solutions until the end of production.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Plant height reached 17.25 cm, at a 50% concentration; root were 12.55 cm long, at a 25% concentration with Sinaloa seeds; stalks were 2.40 mm thick, at a 25% concentration with Bajío seeds; and biomass recorded 1.184 kg at a 50% concentration with Sinaloa seeds.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> A greenhouse is not essential for fodder production, as long as the minimum necessary conditions (light, humidity, and temperature) are met.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> The 50% nutrient solution had a positive influence on the study variables that used Sinaloa variety seeds. Therefore, hydroponics would be a reliable and practical technique for producers, useful during periods of prolonged drought; it would significantly counteract agroclimatological setbacks in the agricultural, livestock, and environmental sectors.</p> 2024-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Acclimation of Agave potatorum Zucc. micropropagated plants 2023-05-12T15:46:23+00:00 Gisela-Virginia Campos-Angeles Sergio Alcara Vazques Jóse Raymundo Enriquez del Valle Gerardo Rodríguez-Ortiz Visente Arturo Velasco Velasco <p><strong>Objective: </strong><em>Agave potatorum</em> Zucc. is an intensively exploited wild plant species. We intend to evaluate how the concentration of mineral salts (MS), indole-butyric acid (IBA), and the incubation conditions affect <em>in vitro</em>-rooted <em>A. potatorum</em> during acclimation.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>We conducted 18 treatments that resulted from combining three factors: 1) MS concentrations (50%, 75%, and 100%); 2) IBA concentrations (without auxin, 0.5 mg L<sup>-1</sup>, and 1 mg L<sup>-1</sup>); and 3) incubation environments (fluorescent lighting in a laboratory or exposure to solar radiation in a greenhouse). Thirteen plants from each treatment were transplanted into individual pots containing a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and perlite. These were placed in the acclimation greenhouse for 150 days, exposed to changes in solar radiation, starting from 600 µmol m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup> and conditions of high relative humidity (80-90%), and reaching outdoor conditions with full solar radiation,1400 ±200 µmol m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>. All <em>in vitro</em> culture plants, both in greenhouse and laboratory, underwent the same environmental and management conditions.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> After 150 days of acclimation, plants micropropagated in a culture medium with 0.5 to 1 mg L<sup>-1</sup> of IBA, 100% MS, and incubated in a greenhouse showed better growth.</p> <p><strong>Study limitations/Implications: </strong>The <em>in vitro</em> culture protocol was (successfully) modified by providing solar radiation in a greenhouse during the rooting of <em>A. potatorum</em> sprouts.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> Solar radiation during <em>in vitro</em> incubation of <em>A. potatorum</em> favors its acclimation.</p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Evaluation of homeopathic treatments for the control of moniliasis (Moniliophthora roreri Samson & Benny), in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) 2023-05-15T18:27:38+00:00 ELSA CHAVEZ GARCIA Roberto Oliva-Montejo <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate low- and high-dilution homeopathic products in the incidence of <em>Moniliophthora roreri</em> in cacao plants. <strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> The plantation was studied using a randomized block design with three repetitions and six treatments: Homeopathic nosode 12C and 200C, Cacao homeopathic combination remedy 12C and 200C, water control, and control sample, with applications every 15 days. The studied variables were: Number of flowers, number of healthy and diseased cherelles, number of healthy and diseased pods, ripe pod weight, fresh grain weight, and leaf color.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A significant difference was observed in the number of flowers with Cacao combined remedy 200C during November-December 2018. A significant difference was observed in leaf color with Cacao combined remedy 200C during October 2018-January 2019 and with Cacao combine remedy 12C in October 2018. No significant difference was found in treatments for number of healthy and diseased cherelles, number of healthy and diseased pods, ripe pod weight, and fresh grain weight.</p> <p><strong>Study limitations/Implications:</strong> The treatment application period was short. In order to obtain more convincing results, a one-year application period prior to evaluation is suggested.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions: </strong>The Cacao combined remedy 200C had a positive effect on the number of flowers during the period in which flowering decreases due to environmental conditions and on leaf greenness during four consecutive months of evaluation. Cacao homeopathic combination remedy 12C showed a significant difference for the latter variable only in October 2018. This suggests that the low-dose homeopathic medication and a high centesimal potency promotes a better response of the cacao plant to an acute disease such as moniliasis.</p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Lamb feeding preference for maize, bean, and broad bean stubble treated with silage effluent, urea-molasses, or phosphoric acid 2023-05-25T15:09:37+00:00 Alfredo Parraguirre Espinosa Juan de Dios Guerrero - Rodríguez María Magdalena Crosby Galván David Hernández Sánchez Gustavo Ramírez Valverde <p>molasses (MaUM), silage effluent with phosphoric acid (MaEflAcP), and control (MaTes); bean stubble treated with silage effluent (FrEfl), effluent silage with urea-molasses (FrEflUM), and control (FrTes); and broad bean stubble treated with silage effluent and urea-molasses (HaEflUM), urea-molasses and phosphoric acid (HaUMAcP), and control (HaTes).</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> Six Dorper/Katahdin lambs of 21 kg (LW) were used to carry out the feeding preference test. In the morning, lambs were fed with a mixture of the three treatments of each stubble (70% of the dry matter (DM) requirement/40 min); meanwhile, in the evenings, they were offered each treatment in independent feeders (10% of the DM requirement/20 min). This treatment lasted 7 days. Intake was measured in grams (offer minus rejection). Once the ordinal qualitative variables of consumption frequency (1=low, 2=medium, and 3=high) were classified, the data were analyzed using the ordinal logistic regression model. The results were expressed as the estimated proportion of incidence of the frequencies (1, 2, or 3).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The proportion estimated for the high consumption frequency recorded higher results for MaUM, HaUMAcP, and FrEflUM, reaching 95.24, 73.44, and 43.49%, respectively. The proportion estimated for the low consumption frequency for HaTes, MaTes, and FrTes was 95.12, 88.11, and 48.77%, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications:</strong> The diets with different quality and flavors did not meet the assumptions of normality and homoscedasticity; however, the results provide valuable information for the improvement of dry matter intake and animal production. <strong>Finding/Conclusions:</strong> Urea-molasses (UM) promoted consumption preference both alone or in combination with other ingredients, in all the stubbles tested.</p> 2024-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Competitiveness of Mexican vanilla (Vanilla spp.) in the international market 2023-06-09T16:11:41+00:00 Omar Peña Sosa Juan Manuel Aguirre López J. Jesús Ramírez Tinoco Samuel RIVERA LOPEZ <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To analyze the competitiveness of Mexican vanilla in the international market.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>The relative trade balance (RTB) and the revealed comparative advantage index (RCAI) were calculated to analyze the competitiveness of the Mexican vanilla in the international market. Both crushed and whole vanilla beans were evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Around 1% of the total vanilla area is harvested in Mexico, representing 6% of the world production volume. The Mexican market is competitive in the international whole vanilla beans market, but not in the case of crushed or ground vanilla.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications: </strong>The SIAVI portal was discontinued. Therefore, the international vanilla trade data could only be retrieved for the period ending on November 2021.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions: </strong>The Mexican market has potential for the development of vanilla production. However, current production is practically absorbed by the local market.</p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Assessment of sustainability attributes of traditional and conventional maize cultivation in farmer agricultural systems 2023-07-05T22:27:29+00:00 Obdulia Solano Albino Artemio López Ríos <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To carry out a comparative analysis of the sustainability of traditional and conventional maize cultivation systems in Cuanacaxtitlán.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach:</strong> The proposal was implemented through a mixed method approach in which a qualitative research predominated. A sustainability assessment for the 23 farmer systems of maize production in Cuanacaxtitlán was carried out, according to the Indicator-Based Sustainability Assessment Framework (Marco para la Evaluación de Sistemas de Manejo Incorporando Indicadores de Sustentabilidad: MESMIS).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The sustainability level between the two types of agroecosystems does not differ much. According to the chosen indicators, TMS is more sustainable in the environmental and economic aspect, while CMS is more sustainable in the social aspect. The average profitability of TMS is better as a result of the <em>milpa</em> profits.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications: </strong>Family Production Units (FPUs) do not own their lands, which limits the improvement of profitability and sustainability in maize production. To this end, land distribution or support programs for landless farmers is important.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions:</strong> Among the 23 systems under analysis, critical values were obtained for two environmental indicators: fertilizer application and pesticide use. Therefore, improving the use of these inputs is an important task.</p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Characterization of native Ya´ax ik chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in the Yucatan Peninsula 2023-07-12T01:39:26+00:00 crescencio de la Cruz Castillo-Aguilar JOANY MARIEL REYES-EK SAN GERMAN BAUTISTA-PARRA Ricardo Antonio Chiquini-Medina <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To morphologically characterize the Ya´ax ik chili pepper: wild chili (<em>Capsicum annuum</em>), native variety from the Yucatan Peninsula.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology: </strong>Ya´ax ik chili pepper seeds were sown in 200-cavity polystyrene trays, and then the plants were placed in bags for hydroponics and were morphologically characterized using the <em>Capsicum</em> descriptor of the International Institute of Genetic Resources.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The plant showed 118 cm and 34.8 cm of height and ramification width and width of the intermediate plant, hanging white flowers and green fruits in the early stage and red at maturity with 7.42 and 2.32 cm length and width. Additionally, tolerance to the virus caused by whiteflies could be observed.</p> <p><strong>Findings and conclusions: </strong>Plant with morphological characteristics susceptible to be genetically improved for its extensive farming, given the market acceptance of the fresh and dried fruit, supported by market prices.</p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad In vitro nutritional assessment and estimation of methane emissions from Kikuyu grass pastures overseeded with rye 2023-07-13T23:18:42+00:00 María N. Marín-Santana Felipe López-González Ernesto Morales-Almaraz Carlos Manuel Arriaga-Jordán <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the in vitro digestibility and gas production, and to estimate the methane emissions from Kikuyu grass pastures, and Kikuyu grass overseeded with rye.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>Two pastures were assessed. One was the subtropical grass Kikuyu Cenchrus clandestinus) (KY), and the other was Kikuyu grass plus overseeding with rye (Secale cereale) (KYCEN), both associated with white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Ladino). Sample collection was in June and July 2021. In vitro digestibility of dry matter (MS), organic matter (MO), and Neutral Detergent Fibre (FDN), as well as the methane emissions were estimated. The in vitro digestibility and gas production variables were analysed with a split-plot experimental design, and the methane emission variables were analysed with a doble cross-over design.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There were no significant differences between treatments for dry matter (MS), organic matter (MO) or Neutral Detergent Fibre (FDN) <em>in vitro </em>digestibility, nor in methane emissions (P&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications: </strong>The <em>in vitro </em>assessment of digestibility, gas production and the estimation of methane emissions of Kikuyu grass pastures and Kikuyu plus rye enable the implementation of feeding strategies for small-scale livestock production systems that do not only benefit the farmers but also the environment.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions: </strong>It is concluded that Kikuyu grass pastures and Kikuyu with rye are a viable feeding option for small-scale dairy systems.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Identification of fungal disease in a Vanilla planifolia Jacks plantation in the central zone of the state of Veracruz, Mexico 2023-09-17T20:12:25+00:00 Clara Córdova-Nieto Norma Flores-Estévez Lourdes G. Iglesias-Andreu Greta H. Rosas-Saito Alejandro Alonso-López Juan Carlos Noa-Carrazana <div> <p class="Default">E</p> <p>The state of Veracruz is the main producer of vanilla in Mexico. In recent years, this crop has been seriously affected by severe phytosanitary problems caused mainly by fungal pathogens. For this reason, it was proposed to develop this study with the objective of determining the causal agents of the disease, incidence, and severity observed in a vanilla plantation located in the locality "El Palmar," Municipality Emiliano Zapata, Veracruz. A census sampling was carried out on one hectare of the plantation to determine the incidence of the disease. Disease severity per plant was determined using a 4-grade scale. Leaves and stems with disease symptoms were collected for morphological description of the pathogenic agents by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed the presence of two species of phytopathogenic fungi, <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> f. sp. vanillae and <em>Puccinia sinanoemea</em>, known to cause root rot and rust diseases in vanilla. The infection resulted in the death of most individuals in the plantation. The incidence was classified as severe (a grade of 4), with 80% infestation by both pathogens. This study contributes to the understanding of the phytosanitary problems this crop faces due to mixed infections of fungal pathogens.</p> </div> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Analysis of the structure of the global avocado (Persea americana Mill) trade network 2023-09-20T17:56:17+00:00 Juan Manuel Aguirre-López Omar Peña-Sosa Valeria Magallanes-Prado Juan Salvador Jiménez-Carrasco <p><strong>ective:</strong> To analyze the structure of the global avocado trade network and to understand the dynamics of commercial interaction between the leading countries in the market, using the social network analysis approach.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>One-hundred thirty-three countries that established 989 commercial exchange relationships were analyzed. This exchange accounted for 99% of the volume of the global avocado market for the year 2021.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The significant diversification in the import sources and export destinations of countries such as Netherlands and Spain suggests a robust and diversified trade strategy. Network indicators give a valuable insight into the centrality and importance of countries in the global avocado trade network. Mexico plays an important role in the network that goes beyond the quantity produced.</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications: </strong>The most current analyzed data available to date belong to the year 2021.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions: </strong>The analysis reveals the complex dynamics of interaction between the leaders of the global avocado trade.</p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad The effect of the Stevia rebaudiana Morita II on the warts caused by fowl pox in Meleagris gallopavo as model study 2023-10-11T03:25:31+00:00 JOSE HUMBERTO CAAMAL VELAZQUEZ José E. Ramírez-Benítez Jorge A. Itza Can Iliana E. Carrillo-Segura Ángel V. Domínguez-May <p><strong>O</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>to evaluate the effect of leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Morita II on swelling caused by fowl pox in backyard turkeys of the Meleagris gallopavo species.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>Different percentages of ground stevia leaves (5.5, 15, 20 and 25%) combined with ground corn were evaluated and the reduction of avian pox in turkeys was evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The diet with 5% stevia leaves with corn was the most accepted combination by the turkeys; it also leads to immunomodulation to eliminate avian pox in a period of 30 days.</p> <p><strong>Limitations on study/implications: </strong>One of the main limitations is the production of stevia matter, however, due to the required amount, it has the possibility of being applied in the feeding of these animals, this study has applications in animal health and food safety in turkeys.</p> <p><strong>Findings/conclusions:</strong> The use of stevia in combination with corn could represent a natural alternative for the treatment of fowl pox and be profitable enough to prevent the death of turkeys.</p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Acute toxicity induced by treated sewage to zebrafish (Danio rerio) 2024-02-22T02:24:08+00:00 Kevin O. Ponce-Palomera Saúl R. Guerrero-Galván Leonardo Martínez Cardenas Fernando Vega-Villasante Aurora E. Rojas-García Daniel Badillo-Zapata <p><strong>Objetivo: </strong>Se evaluaron marcadores de toxicidad aguda en pez cebra causados por la exposición a aguas residuales tratadas de dos plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales para obtener información precisa y relevante sobre los riesgos potenciales para la salud ambiental asociados con estas aguas.</p> <p><strong>Diseño/metodología/aproximación: </strong>La evaluación de la toxicidad aguda se realizó de acuerdo a los lineamientos propuestos por la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OECD). Para determinar la Dilución Letal Media (LDil<sub>50</sub>) se analizaron cinco proporciones de cada tipo de agua tratada con agua del grifo declorada (20, 40, 60, 80 y 100%). La descripción de los efectos teratogénicos se realizó mediante el biomarcador de columna vertebral.</p> <p><strong>Resultados: </strong>Los resultados revelaron que la mezcla de agua residual tratada (mCl) y el agua residual tratada desinfectada con hipoclorito de sodio (NaClO) causaron efectos tóxicos en los embriones del pez cebra, como letalidad, malformaciones y alteraciones cardiacas. Por otra parte, el agua residual tratada de la Macroplanta de Bahía de Banderas (BBdClO) no fue tóxica a 96 horas de exposición.</p> <p><strong>Limitaciones del estudio/implicaciones: </strong>Sería recomendable caracterizar las aguas residuales tratadas de estas dos plantas de tratamiento.</p> <p><strong>Hallazgos/conclusiones: </strong>Estos hallazgos subrayan la importancia de evaluar la toxicidad de las aguas residuales tratadas y sus efectos a corto y largo plazo en los organismos acuáticos, proporcionando información valiosa para la gestión de recursos hídricos y la protección del medio ambiente.</p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad Fungi diversity in roots of Guarianthe skinneri in urban condition: velamen versus cortex 2024-04-04T18:14:08+00:00 Jorge José Ochoa-Bonilla Vincenzo Bertolini Eugenia Zarza <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To Identify the endophytic fungal community of the <em>G. skinneri </em>root in urban populations, showing differences in composition between velamen and cortex to better understand the fungus-root interaction in these orchids.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong>: We collected tissues from velamen and root from five specimens of <em>G. skinneri</em> growing on urban trees in Tapachuala, Chiapas. We extracted DNA, PCR amplified the ITS marker, sequenced on the Illumina platform followed by diversity analyses and taxonomic assignment.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: We detected 845 OTUs that were assigned to the Fungi kingdom. Velamen and cortex share 403 OTUs, 402 were found exclusively in velamen and 40 in cortex. Besides orchid mycorrhiza forming fungi, we detected other species (e.g <em>Alternaria </em>sp.<em>, Beauveria </em>sp.<em>, Fusarium </em>sp., <em>Glomus </em>sp.<em> and</em> <em>Tricoderma </em>sp.) that could be involved in root physiology during development and defense against pathogens and predators</p> <p><strong>Study Limitations/Implications</strong>: Metagenomic studies provide substantial amounts of data that go beyond conventional studies. However, the information generated is still limited regarding the role of each endophyte.</p> <p><strong>Findings/Conclusions</strong>: Despite these limitations, our work fills a knowledge gap because we detected endophytes that were previously unknown for <em>G. skinneri, </em>leading to new research questions about root-endophyte relationships.</p> 2024-04-16T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad State of poeciliid fishes in the international market 2024-01-16T20:09:53+00:00 Marcos Hernández-López Fabiola Lango-Reynoso María R. Castañeda-Chavez Jesus Montoya-Mendoza Olaya P. Castellanos-Onorio Mario Diaz-Gonzalez Leonardo Martínez Cardenas <p><strong>Objetivo: </strong>Hacer una revisión y análisis acerca del papel que tienen los peces poecílidos dentro del mercado internacional.</p> <p><strong>Diseño/metodología/aproximación:</strong> La presente investigación se realizó mediante la búsqueda y recopilación bibliográfica de literatura, así como en la consulta de artículos en diferentes bases de datos, para su posterior análisis y procesamiento de la información.</p> <p><strong>Resultados: </strong>Los peces poecílidos son el grupo de peces ornamentales más extendido a nivel internacional, se encuentran en todos los mercados internacionales, liderando las producciones con fines de acuariofilia, por lo que tienen gran importancia económica dentro del comercio de organismos acuáticos con fines ornamentales</p> <p><strong>Limitaciones del estudio/implicaciones: </strong>Los poecílidos son un grupo de peces bien conocido, sin embargo, la información sobre comercialización y datos específicos de venta se encuentra limitado.</p> <p><strong>Hallazgos/conclusiones:</strong> El pez más vendido es el Guppy (<em>P. reticulata</em>), seguido de los mollies, platies y colas de espada, los cuales constituyen los principales poecílidos comercializados a nivel internacional.</p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2024 Agro Productividad